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WRTC-2010 Frequently Asked Questions

Last modified: 2010-04-06

This document explains particular statements of WRTC-2010 Contest Rules. This document must conform to the WRTC-2010 Contest Rules. The document is based on questions received by the WRTC-2010 Organizing committee and will be updated as far as new questions will arise.

1. Station setup

1. Q? Should I keep all my equipment inside the tent?
A: Yes, all equipment used by a team must be located inside of tent (except gas generator and 220V cable from it, antenna feeders, antennas). Participants must stay in referee's field of view (except visiting WC). [Added to Rules, 2010-01-17, 6.14]

2. Q? The WRTC station description page says that each team will be supplied with 3 x 5 EU (Schuko) outlets. Does "3 x 5" mean 3 separate power strips with 5 outlets each, total of 15 outlets?
A: Yes.

Comments: It is planned that the 220V circuit will include:
1. Power Generator (230 V, 50 Hz, 2 kW) with Schuko outlet (one or two outlets).
2. 30 m Power Cable on a bobbin; three Schuko outlets are on that bobbin.
3. Three 5-outlet (Schuko) extenders with 3 m-long power cable each; a Schuko plugs on these cables are to be inserted to bobbin' three outlets.
So a team will be provided with 3 x 5 = 15 Schuko outlets.

3. Q? A photo of that "EU (Schuko) outlet" would be helpful.
A: An outlet type is the same as it is seen at top of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schuko.

4. Q? I assume three of these outlets will be used for the two lamps and the fan, leaving 12 free outlets (which seems like plenty).
A: Yes, 12 free outlets are left if two lamps and a fan are connected.

5. Q? According to Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schuko "Russian plugs will fit Schuko outlets, but Schuko plugs will not fit Russian outlets."
A: It is so. Old "Russian outlets" will not be used.

6. Q? Will all outlets accept 4.8 mm (Schuko) pins? In other words, none of the outlets supplied to the teams will be the older "Russian" style, which accept only 4.0 mm pins, correct?
A: Yes it is. Old "Russian outlets" will not be used.

7. Q? Does the generator output 230 VAC at 50 Hz, or 60 Hz, or some other value?
A: Power Generator is rated 230 V, 50 Hz. So, to avoid own equipment damage, one must be sure that his equipment is suitable for these values.
The same mains parameters are all over Russia (including hotel' mains). Hotel wall outlets will be Schuko type.

[06.04] 8. Q: Will each area have a mobile generator on call so if a generator fails, a backup would be installed in just a couple of minutes? We are allowed backup radios and computers. I would hate to be the poor team that lost a generator even if it took only 15 minutes to fix.
A: During the competition, as electric power source for any equipment in tent, the team is allowed to use only that power generator provided by Organizer.

1. No own backup power generators are allowed. No own Uninterruptable Power Supplies, 12 V accumulator batteries or similar power sources are allowed for power backup. Exception: built-in batteries in portable computers, audio recorder, other peripherals, CMOS memory backup batteries are allowed. [Added to Station Description, 2010-04-06]

2. Organizer takes responsibility to deliver and launch backup generator to the team in case of malfunction. Necessary number of backup generators will be arranged in fields. Team actions in case of power fault will be announced close to event date (e.g. just to tell their on-site volunteer). Yes, delivery time can vary depending on some factors: day/night, road quality, distance. Organizer will take all necessary measures to minimize delivery time. 15 minutes is the expected maximum time gap.

3. Organizer informs that there was *no one* power failure in last three RRTCs when generators were provided to 20+ teams. Each generator will be carefully checked and tested way before the event. Every team will test its generator all the morning, right before the event, from their arrival to the position and till the contest begins (about 8 hours).

4. And, although it is a matter of luck, Organizer kindly ask every team to expect 100% reliability of power rather than bother about low-probable power failure.

2. Antennas

1. Q? What to expect regarding the SWR curve on the antennas provided 40 m thru 10 m.
A: SWR curves for all bands are to be published so everyone can make deliberate technical decision. Here are a couple of considerations:
- tri-bander antenna's SWR is less than 2:1 in 10-20m bands at coax end; usual SWR is less then 1.5:1;
- 80m and 40m dipoles are very common so interested one may examine them experimentally on any band. Remember that operators are allowed to tune 40m and 80m antennas. Tuned to CW, low 80m antenna is expected to have reasonable SWR (3:1) in SSB part of band.

2. Q? What about antennas' cables?
A: For every WRTC-2010 station, Organizing committee plans to use RG-8X 50-Ohm coaxial cable of the same batch. Three antennas (tri-bander, 80m and 40m Inv. V) will be fed through three separate cables of the same length, each is 30 meters long.
Participants are not allowed to change or cut these cables, so their lengths must remain unchanged. Any devices' installation (e.g. switching, filtering, amplifying, balancing etc.) is not allowed on these cables for participants; these devices can be placed after PL-259 connector only and must be located inside of tent. [Added to Rules, 2010-01-17, 6.15 and 16.16]

3. Equipment usage

1. Q? Can Operator A tune Radio B to operate SO2R while Operator B tends to other matters, such as reorienting antennas or visiting the WC?
A: There is no prohibition on this in the Rules. The answer is Yes.

Comments: It does not matter what the Operator B is doing at that moment (reorienting antenna or staying inside of tent and assisting Operator A to make QSOs). Remember that in any situation the only one transmitting signal is allowed at any moment of time.
In the Rules:
- "19.7 [Operator A] Can operate any of the allowed devices", i.e. in your case Operator A can use both Radio A and Radio B;
- "17.8 [Radio B] Can share audio with Radio A", i.e. in your case Operator A can get audio from Radio B;
- "18.2 [Computer A] Allowed to Key Radio A and Radio B (CW and SSB)", i.e. in your case Operator A can use his computer to key both Radio A and Radio B.
So in your case the rules allow everything necessary for SO2R operation.

[06.04] Q? Can both operators listen to the audio from Rig A or Rig B or both Rig A and Rig B by their own decision?
A: Yes. (Rule 19.6).

2. Q? On another note: 16.2 No second RX in 2 VFO radios is allowed (sub-receiver must be OFF) and also 2. VFO A reception 3. VFO B reception is not allowed 4. VFO A and VFO B transmit. I am confused about VFO A and VFO B which I assume has nothing to do with a sub receiver.
A: Unfortunately, the rules are too brief here. They mean:
listening signals on a single frequency with Radio A is allowed, the same is for Radio B;
in case of two-channel (multi-channel) radio (which has sub-receiver or parallel reception capabilities), which allows to listen signals on different frequencies simultaneously, sub-receiver (or that parallel reception) "must be Off";
radios with spectrum scope (e.g. IC-756) are allowed in case of that additional feature does not perform signal demodulation;
you can use sub-receiver control buttons, frequency knob and frequency display to set up, store and recall a frequency (use "VFO B" as a frequency buffer) and produce transmission on that frequency ("VFO B transmit", e.g. in split operation);
but you are not allowed to listen two frequencies simultaneously from a single radio;
this "single RX frequency from a single radio" rule is monitored by referee; so referee must hear (& audio recorder must fix) everything what comes from Radio A and Radio B. [Rules modified, 2010-01-17, 6.2.2, 17.2 and 17.3]

3. Q? Without modification, as soon as you press the button for VFO B in a TCVR [which has sub-receiver] that has only one receiver active, it will receive signals on that VFO and you will be in violation. What to do?
A: Well, use Change button or Equalize frequencies function in ICOM, A-->B or A<-->B or B-TX light button "VFO B - TX" in FT-1000MP and so on. Is there a need to turn on 2nd receiver to utilize "4. VFO A and VFO B transmit"? If it is so, then:
(1) before the contest commences, let the referee know that this can happen, explain him what is going; AND
(2) set the volume of sub-receiver to minimum so nothing is heard, and keep the volume completely off in contest time.

[06.04] 4. Q? Is there anything in the competitor rules which would prohibit sharing a single antenna with both radios?
A: Nothing prohibits you in usage of the same antenna for both radios.

[06.04] 5. Q? This configuration would have each radio connected to the power monitor, and the two outputs of the power monitor connected to a signal combiner/splitter. The output of the combiner/splitter would connect to a single antenna.
A: This configuration is acceptable.

Besides all, your combiner/splitter can incorporate active components (e.g. transistors or ICs) in *receive-only* path (e.g. MOS source follower or other preamplifier). So one have to read the rule 16.6 "16.6. Band-pass filters are allowed for both radio A and radio B. External antenna tuners are allowed for all antennas." as

    "*Any* device, *any* circuit can be placed between power monitor and antennas' connectors, excepting:
  • those which amplify your transmitting signal;
  • those which can be classified as extra (third, fourth) Radio (e.g. some digital signal processor, external receiver or something like that);
  • antennas which aren't one of three antennas provided by Organizer.

Those any devices must be situated inside of tent."

4. Power monitoring

1. Q? Will it be most likely be necessary to have antenna tuners in typical solid state 100W transceivers?
A: RRTC practice shown that, considering simplified forward wave-acting power meters and real SWR values (~1.5:1), the tuner benefits (FWD power meter occurs in pure 50 Ohm conditions so indicates "less" power) are eaten by tuner losses. So no one RRTC team decided to use tuner for transmission on the appropriate band. This does not refer to special cases like transmission to 40 m antenna on 20 m and operation on wide 80 m band (80 m band wasn't used in RRTC).

2. Q? "16.2. ...Both Radio A and Radio B can use only one antenna connector..." What does it means?
A: Radio frequency (RF) signal must come to (during reception) and come from (during transmission) from TCVR through *the only one* connector ("Ant A", "Ant 1" etc.) which is dedicated for this by the manufacturer of the TCVR. It is done to exclude any issues in TX output power monitoring. So your radio RF connections are to be as follows:
[Radio A] <--1st jumper--> [1st head of P-monitor] <--> [everything else] <--> [antenna feeder's connector]
[Radio B] <--2nd jumper--> [2nd head of P-monitor] <--> [everything else] <--> [antenna feeder's connector]
Jumpers and power monitors are provided by the Organizing committee (see "Station description").
During the contest, RF signal must come from(to) a Radio to(from) antenna by a single connector on that Radio. A single physical wired RF path can be done from a Radio through Jumper and Power monitor to your Switching/ filtering/ splitting/ matching/ whatever_else and further to the antenna.

Comments: The purpose of this limitation is to keep every transmitter under uncompromising power monitoring. A drawback is clear also -- this limitation can make a switching design some more complicated. So any connection to the TCVR A and TCVR B which carries RF signal to/from antenna must be done after power monitor coupling/detector heads. [Rules modified, 2010-01-17, 6.2.1]

3. Q? Can I use RX ANT IN and RX ANT OUT connectors of IC-7800 to connect external set of RX crystal filters?
A: Yes, you can.

Comments This network (a two-port network, e.g. external filter) must not have any RF connection with antennas which passes outside power monitor. This network can be electrically controlled or DC powered (e.g. band switching or DC powered receiving preamplifier).
Sure, "Switching/ filtering/ splitting/ matching/ whatever_else" system must not amplify your transmitting signal so the system can be checked by referee and by Judging committee. Be ready to answer their questions. That system can incorporate receiving-only preamplifier.

4. Q? Whether the Operator is allowed to manually disconnect P-monitor jumper' plug from that one connector on a Radio and re-connect the plug to another one single connector on that Radio?
A: Yes, this can be done. It does not contradict with power monitoring principle.

[06.04] 5. Radios' transmission lockout

1. Q? Are any other teams planning on using a pair of K3's ? How are you planning on implementing a transmitter lockout ? The K3 has a TX Inhibit pin on the accessory connector, which would seem to be the simplest way to implement the lockout. However, my understanding is that it does not disconnect the CW and SSB sidetone, only the transmitter output. This could confuse the judges - they could still hear what appears to be outgoing transmission, even though there is no power output. Is this acceptable?
A: 1. Preface.
1.1. The problem.
It is known that some TCVR models produce "false" monitor sound. This happens when RIG is in receive mode ("RX" LED is ON and received stations are heard in headphones), and CW keying may produce CW sound (for monitoring) in headphones which adds to receiver' sound. Below, this monitor sound is called "false" because of no radio frequency emission is going from TCVR. Steve N2IC informed us that the same can happen even in SSB with some TCVR models.

In the WRTC-2010 this issue can lead to the following case:
Say, Radio B transmission is blocked (Rule 16.2.3) because Radio A operator started transmission first; but keying of Radio B will produce "false" monitoring signal which both referee and audio recording device will fix. This may seem as simultaneous transmission from Radio A & B, while, actually, there is only one signal in the air. I.e. audio monitor signal "correctness" per se can't serve as necessary and sufficient condition for Rule 16.2.3.

1.2. What Rules say on this (extractions).
16.2.3. Both Radio A and Radio B are allowed to transmit but the only one signal on the air at any given time. TX of the second radio has to be blocked when first radio is transmitting and vice versa.
17.5. TX of the Radio A has to be blocked when Radio B is transmitting.
16.9. The teams must provide equipment and recording of the all the WRTC contest operation for both received and transmitted audio of Radio A and Radio B.

2. The answer.
Back to the question: "...This could confuse the judges - they could still hear what appears to be outgoing transmission, even though there is no power output. Is this acceptable?"
Yes, it is acceptable.

If someone can't overcome "false" monitor problem, then leave it as is. Although Judging committee welcomes those switching systems which produce no "false" audio monitor signals. Once again, sure, one and only one signal can be in the air (Rule 16.2.3.).

3. Comments. 3.1. When elaborating a switching system, every team must provide compliance with the Rule 16.2.3. TX lockout can be realized:
- using your computer log software and your computer network (PC-A to PC-B data link; not all loggers support lockout thru network feature);
- using "hardware" (e.g. by breaking all signal lines which put TCVR to transmit mode);
- combining both "software" and "hardware" approaches.

Decide, whether you can use VOX function in TCVR together your lockout solution; in most cases VOX (QSK or Break-in in CW) function has to be turned off.

Remember that Antenna Tuner has to be used in compliance with Rule 16.2.3 also.

3.2. Judging committee welcomes those switching systems which exclude "false" audio monitor signals, both in referee headphones and audio record. "False" audio monitor sound can be eliminated:
- in "software approach": pass signals of your CW paddles, Mics and footswitches through computers (PC-A and PC-B) and logging software; in this case logging software will not produce neither CW keying nor DVP sound output, nor direct Mic connection to the blocked TRVR; or
- in "hardware approach": break all the CW keying lines (paddle and keying line from logging software) together with PTT line and footswitch of TCVR to be blocked while other Radio in TX state.

Past RRTCs practice shown that all the teams had solved "false monitor" problem.

3.3. To avoid misunderstanding, long before the contest starts, please show and explain to your on-site referee how your switching acts:
- show where "Receive" and "Transmit" LEDs are in your TCVR (your radio can be new to your referee);
- show your lockout in action: while "Transmit" LED is ON on a Radio, another Radio is unable to transmit ("Receive" LED stays ON and receiving signals are heard in headphones) in all possible modes and conditions; do the same while transmitting from another Radio;
- set output power to 100 W on both radios; put one Radio to SSB, press its footswitch and say nothing to its Mic (referee' RF power monitor will show no output power); then try to transmit from another (TX-blocked) Radio: power monitor must show no power as well;
- if you can not solve the "false monitor" problem, then definitely draw referee's attention to "false" monitor sound coming from blocked radio; discuss this situation with your referee so everything must be clear to him.

4. How can referee check "one signal in the air" rule (just for better understanding; exact instructions will be given to on-site referees later):
- "Transmit" LEDs aren't ON on both Radios simultaneously;
- reception is still heard though "false" monitor in blocked Radio, so that Radio is in RX mode;
- correspondent station of blocked radio' Operator doesn't react to "blocked transmission";
- Note that referee's RF Power Monitor is built so it indicates a sum of powers detected by its coupling heads. I.e. it indicates total power produced by two Radios in every moment. If a sum of powers of two TCVRs (usually it is 100 W + 100 W = 200 W) exceeds value of 100 W, then RF Power Monitor indicates "100 W power" rule violation (red LED is lit) if two signals are outgoing in one moment. So this will be the sign.

5. If a referee is doubtful or even suspects "one signal in the air" rule violation, then referee should inform Judging Committee. Referee must indicate time (UTC) when he observed [possible] rules violation. Judging committee will make decision basing on the Rules. Audio record, provided by the team, as well as Judging Committee SDR record will be used for this.

2. Q? Can I initiate automatic antenna tuner of my Radio while second Radio is transmitting?
A: If tuner requires signal transmission, you must wait till the end of second Radio's transmission. It is required by the rule 16.2.3.

Comments: There are plenty solutions of lockout circuit. Let us consider the following case. Pushing "Tuner Tune" button on a Radio (e.g. TUNE button on FT-1000MP) launches Antenna Tuner forced tune-up, so RF signal is generated by that Radio. If another Radio is being transmitting at that moment, then Rule 16.2.3 is braking. (In this particular case your on-site referee will make a caution.) To avoid this case:
- push a footswitch first (so lockout circuit "will know" that you want to transmit);
- wait till the end of another Radio will finish its transmission, and your Radio will enter to transmit mode;
- do whatever you want: push "Tuner Tune" or start your transmission.

[06.04] 6. Spectrum scopes and pan adapters

1. Q? What is the essence of the Rule 16.2.4 on spectrum scope / pan adapter?
A: Pan adapter can be realized in any way (built-in, SDR). But it must act "just like that TV on IC-756", not "more intellectually" nor "more interactive". Traditional band scopes are OK, because they don't offer that much of an advantage, if any, but waterfall displays, "peak hold" and "point and click" tuning is not allowed, and the scope may not be used to monitor a 3rd band. So, for example, an Elecraft P3 pan-adapter is OK, but not if you use the "click" feature, and it must be kept in "band scope" mode, not "waterfall mode". So a human (competitor) must find stations on a band and copy callsigns by himself.

2. Q? Are WRTC-2010 competitors allowed to use the built-in band scopes / pan adapters of radios such as the Icom IC-7800, IC-756 Pro III, FlexRadio Flex-5000A with PowerSDR?
A: Yes (observing Rule 16.2.4 limitations).

3. Q? Are competitors allowed to use *external* band scopes / waterfall displays (e.g. Elecraft P3 (www.elecraft.com/news.htm)?
A: Yes. Please note that waterfall form of data visualization is not allowed as a result of "secondary signal processing" (in this case -- storing and transformation to "instant spectrum vs. time" display).

4. Q? Assuming the answer is also yes, are competitors allowed to use an *external* SDR such as the Perseus, to provide the same function as a panadapter / waterfall display, provided that SDR is only used as a scope and the audio output is 100% muted and unavailable to the operators?
A: Yes. Please note that, for radio signal input, SDR can be connected to Radio A/B only (e.g. using RX IN/RX OUT connectors of a Radio).

5. Q? Does the SDR display have to be on PC-A and PC-B?
A: PC-A and PC-B and its screens can be used. But a separate window is to be displayed for spectrum on a screen: neither interaction with log software (except Radio A/B band/frequency input to SDR) nor Radio A/B control by spectrum scope (e.g. Radio A/B frequency changing by mouse click on a spectrum picture) is allowed.

6. Q? Can a 3rd computer be used as a scope display?
A: No. Rule 16.7 limits every team with two computers only, PC-A & PC-B (third PC-Audio is allowed as audio recorder solely, see Rules' FAQ page about PC-Audio). Only these two computers can be used for SDRs' data strim/IQ analog signal processing.

7. Audio recording, referee's headphones

1. Q?: Can the team choose to use a third computer just for recording the contest?
A: Yes.
Besides Computer A and Computer B, competitors are allowed to use the only one (third) computer for audio recording. As well, other means can be used for audio recording, i.e. Computer A or (and) Computer B or (and) portable digital stereo sound recorder etc. To avoid tragic failure in recording, you can make backup audio recording using two or more devices simultaneously.
If you decide to use the third computer (for audio recording), then this third computer:
- must be marked or labeled "Audio";
- must be implemented solely for audio recording;
- can be connected to any other equipment solely with audio cable (sure 220V mains is OK), and only audio signal can go from Radio A and Radio B to this computer;
- must NOT be connected to ANY other data network (wired or wireless, including Computer A <---> Computer B network);
- competitors are allowed to check the state of audio recording looking on the screen of this third computer and making necessary operations under referee's supervision.

2. Q?: Are operators allowed to review recorded audio and make log changes based on that review during the contest?
A: No, operators are NOT allowed to review recorded audio until they will pass their log and audio record to referee. Operators are allowed to check the state of audio recording rarely and under referee's supervision.

3. Q? The audio from each rig must include the operator voice/CW output signal?
A: Rules, 16.9: The teams must provide equipment and recording of the all the WRTC contest operation for both received and **transmitted audio** of Radio A and Radio B.

4. Q? Will the audio from Rig A be mixed into one channel for the judge and the recording and the audio from Rig B be mixed into another channel for the judge and the recording?.
A: Sound of Radio A receiver and sound of Radio A transmission monitor (CW and SSB) goes to first (e.g. left) channel of stereo audio record and, through TRS connection (Rule 16.8.1), to first ear of referee headphones. We suggest to connect in parallel all devices mentioned above: audio source (Radio A), a channel of audio recorder and an ear of headphones.

The same is for Radio B: sound of Radio B receiver and sound of Radio B transmission monitor (CW and SSB) goes to the second (right) channel of stereo audio record and, through TRS connection (Rule 16.8.1) to second ear of referee headphones.

5. Q? I must check if using the audio output from rig it carries the monitor (MIC/CW output) on it at proper levels.
A: Both received and transmitted signals (RX output and TX monitor in CW and SSB) should be audible on your record and should be audible for your referee. Both your signal and your correspondent' signal. A QSO which doesn't present on your record may be put in question.

6. Q? Is this output audio (constant level) OK at least for the referees?
A: Very probable that the constant level monitor output from your rig is too weak for driving referee' headphones. It is clear that due to variety of situations it is hard to set exact r.m.s. levels for audio and establish the same audio cirquity chart for everybody.
The most simple solution is to connect referee' headphones and audio recorder with operator headphones in parallel and turn on CW/SSB TX monitor. In most cases it is enough. TX monitor level can be quite low but the monitor must be clear enough to copy. Don't worry to make signal a little bit loud for referee.
Any other combinations are good also. Just make an experiment at home with your rig and recorder at all expected audio levels and check it. Remember that:
- all Radio A signals (TX & RX) are to be recorded on a single (left or right) channel of a stereo record and are to be audible in a single channel of referee' headphones;
- all Radio B signals (TX & RX) are to be recorded on a single different channel of *the same* stereo record and are to be audible in a different channel of referee' headphones.

[06.04] Q? Does the chosen level of audio from each channel (Radio A and Radio B) by the competitors have to match the level for the judge and recording?
A: Supposing that headphones of referee (provided by the team) and headphones of operators are of similar type (impedances are close), levels are matched. Just the basic idea is that referee must be able to hear the same as heard in operators' headphones. The same audio level is acceptable for "Line in" audio recorders (e.g. computer sound card line input), but please check this at home.

7. Q?: Not all rigs provide a transmit monitor signal for voice.
A: It is so. But all records must fit the rules. So in this case, while elaborating your station setup, one must solve this technical problem.

8. Q?: Many operators don't want to listen to their CW sidetone while sending as it makes it harder to listen to the second radio.
A: It is so. In this case, while elaborating your station setup, one must solve this technical problem.

9. Q? Wow, 45+ teams times 2 radios each team times 24 hours = 2,160 hours of audio... Yikes who in their right mind would want to wade through that?
A: Don't forget that there will be 50+ referees on sites listening every team and fixing possible violations. Record is used to check referee' marks and in case of difficulties.

10. Q? It would be very helpful if the referees could be responsible for providing their own headphones.
A: Rules state: 16.8. The teams must provide comfortable quality stereo head phones to the referee to monitor Radio A and Radio B at any given time during the contest.
1. Those referee headphones, provided by a team, must end with mini stereo jack (3.5 mm TRS) on cable, so audio source must have 3.5 mm TRS socket (female-type connector).
2. Only in case of the team is agree, on-site referee is allowed to use his own headphones with mini stereo jack on cable; teams are asked to let referee use his own headphones unless those headphones not prevent normal operation of team equipment (e.g. do lower Operator' audio because of low internal impedance). Cable length of referee's own headphones must be long enough so referee must not prevent Operator or draw his attention.

[06.04] 11. Q? As a referee I think it's going to be very important to be able to adjust volume and mix to my stereo headphones while monitoring the two radios. The best scenario would be to have the ability to dynamically ride the gain, balance (and potentially mix) so I can hear what I want to hear independent of the settings of the two ops. The best scenario, though also the most complicated, would be a combination stereo audio amp and a small mixer controllable by the referee.
A: The WRTC Rules in paragraph 16.8.2 allows referee to connect his own headphones instead of team's headphones, and paragraph 16.8.1 defines connector type. Referee can connect any necessary device to that connector (headphones, audio amplifier, mixer) unless this prevents normal operation of team's equipment. Please note that referee's equipment must not limit a team with 230 V outlets, so please assume the measures.

12. Q? It would also be nice if the contest recording (rule 16.9) will be handled by the referee instead of the teams. Referees have more room in their luggage.
A: Rules state:
13. Recordering After the contest each team must provide to the referee continuous stereo recording of Radio A and Radio B on USB2 compatible device (USB flash memory, USB hard drive) or CD/DVD disk for all operation time
and further:
16.9. The teams must provide equipment and recording of the all the WRTC contest operation for both received and transmitted audio of Radio A and Radio B.

Comments: 1. Leveling playground as best as it is possible means that minimal score differences are expected. So every QSO is valuable. Judges must be able to verify every single QSO by a record. In some cases a QSO can became doubtful after comprehensive computer log checking, or basing on on-site referee' report, or, may be, because of other reasons. Thus in some cases the only record can be the basis for approving that QSO. In these circumstances absence of correspondent' signal on a record (or whole record missing) may lead to that QSO rejection. So, first of all, *Operators* are vitally interested in making a good audio record. Teams final standing must not depend on referee' bad recorder or audio output/input volume mismatch.
Basing on these considerations, Organizing committee decides that the team, not referee, must be responsible for providing complete and good-quality audio record.
2. Luggage weight does not reducing in most cases. It is expected that many team-nominated referees will be selected. The team and that team' nominated referee can discuss and test appropriate type of recorder long before the contest, and referee can bring his recorder for *his* team. If so, there is no difference in luggage weight: either a referee bring his own recorder for another team, or he bring his recorder for his own team. Unfortunately, "unlucky" teams without nominated referee will be "punished" in luggage weight (but not in every case: remember about modern light-weight Flash recorders or about usage of Operator's computer as recorder etc.).
3. Audio file formats are to be discussed some later. No issues are expected on this: judges will be able to read nearly every file format.

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